Rev. Enoch Green died 1776
Married Mary Beatty

"Rev Enoch Green (40), son of William (4), was graduated by Princeton College, and after a course of theology, was licensed to preach, and became the pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Deerfield, N.J., 1766. He served for a short time as chaplain in the Revolutionary army, and there contracted the camp fever, of which he died, December 2nd, 1776, aged 42; is buried in the aisle of the church. He married Mary, eldest daughter of Rev. Charles Beatty, who retained, in vigorous exercise, her mental powers, which were of a high order, till her death, May 2nd, 1842, in the 96th year of her age. She is buried in the grounds of the Presbyterian Church, corner of Fourth and Pine Streets, Philadelphia[1]. Their children were: William Enoch (42); Ann, married Benjamin Guild; and Charles Beatty (43)."- Cooley


Enoch was named after his grandfather, Enoch Armitage, first elder and prominent member of Pennington Presbyterian Church.

"I was the first full-time pastor of Deerfield Presbyterian Church. One of my students was Joseph Bloomfield, who was an officer in the Revolutionary Army-- Third New Jersey Regiment. Joseph later became Governor of New Jersey, and he was a descendant of my uncle Reuben Armitage. Prior to my call to Deerfield, I served as pulpit supply to Maidenhead Church from 1764 until 1766, after the departure of Rev. Guild. The oldest remaining portion of the sanctuary was built during my period of service to that congregation. When I moved on to Deerfield, I came up with a scheme for building a new church there as well. I was a Newsider of the New Brunswick Presbytery. We "New Light" pastors had a zeal for establishing schools of higher education. I ran a Latin school in Deerfield , NJ. I served as a chaplain at Fort Washington, and died of the camp fever in 1776."

Rev. Enoch Green Biography from The Princetonians


www.deerfieldpres.org

Left: Deerfield Church Today- "To many the period of Enoch Green’s ministry might be particularly notable for the fact that in 1771 the present stone church was built."

Right: The Church Aisle-Enoch's Resting Place from 1776 until 1947-- "As was the custom in some areas, the remains of the very first ministers of the church were buried beneath the brick floor." In 1947 his remains were exhumed and moved to the churchyard, directly in front of the double doors.

Click here to see the text of a 1976 Bicentennial Deerfield Church Fact sheet.

"It is interesting to note that the stones in the front and on the street sides of the structure are regular, while the ones on the northern side and back are more irregular."







Transcription of pages 100-106 of the History of the Deerfield Presbyterian Church.
According to this account, Enoch contracted the Camp Fever while stationed at Fort Washington. The timing of Enoch’s presence at the fort corresponds to the period when the fort fell to the British (Nov 16, 1776). At the time, Enoch's brother-in-law,
John Beatty, was also stationed at Fort Washington. John suffered a long imprisonment, but survived. It is not clear whether Enoch was also captured and then released by the British, to go home and die, or whether his departure from the fort shortly preceded the British siege. Students of this battle will recall that most of the Colonial forces captured (I believe they numbered in the thousands) were placed on ships in New York City, where they subsequently perished from neglect. Most of them were only young lads. This was a very sad moment in our early history.

1766/1767

Following the departure of Mr. Williams, Deerfield again resorted to the necessity of obtaining temporary supplies, among whom were Nehemiah Greenman, William Ramsey and their former pastor, Andrew Hunter of Greenwich. Finally, on the advice of the Philadelphia Presbytery, they applied to the Presbytery of New Brunswick for a minister.

ENOCH GREEN- 1767/1776



On May 25, 1767, Enoch Green was transferred from the Presbytery of New Brunswick to Philadelphia and on that same day accepted the call to Deerfield.

Enoch Green was born in Ewing Township, near Trenton, New Jersey, about 1734, the son of Lydia Armitage and William Green, a prosperous farmer who was an elder of Trenton’s Presbyterian Church. After graduating from Princeton, Green studied theology, first with the Baptist Rev’d Isaac Eaton in Hopewell, and later with Samuel Finley after the latter had assumed the presidency of the college at Princeton. He was licensed by the Presbytery of New Brunswick on December 29, 1761. Before that date he had received detailed instructions from the Rev’d John Brainerd, a trustee of the college, on where he was to preach along the South Jersey shore, from Tom’s River to Tuckahoe. He was ordained on October 1, 1762, by the Presbytery of New Brunswick.

Enoch Green Comes to Deerfield

To some extent, even today, communication between Deerfield and the Princeton area is not too frequent. In 1767, before the era of postal system, telephone, or transportation other than by horseback, which required travel over roads which were little more than forest trails, it might be assumed that Deerfield was far removed from any contact with the College of New Jersey at Princeton. This does not seem to have been the case and it is quite possible a much higher percentage of those living in Princeton were aware of Deerfield as a community of moderate importance than there are today.

It is not known exactly how the Session of Deerfield learned that Enoch Green, who was at that time serving as a supply to churches in Hopewell and Lawrenceville, might be persuaded to come to Cumberland County.

At that time Enoch Green was a member of the Presbytery of New Brunswick which during the period of the Old Light-New Light dispute had not been on friendly terms with the Presbytery of Philadelphia. Nevertheless, it was at the advice of Philadelphia that representatives of the Deerfield Church wrote to Enoch Green inviting him to consider becoming the pastor of their church. If from no other source, it is possible that word had come to Deerfield concerning Green’s qualifications as a preacher through his acquaintance with John Leake of Wading River who was member of a prominent Deerfield family. A copy of the letter inviting Mr. Green to come to Deerfield follows:



Enoch did respond favorably to the call and the thirty-three year old bachelor moved into the brick parsonage at Deerfield. Although he had been raised on a farm and was therefore familiar with the work involved, he was far more interested in books and study than in physical labor. However, with the assistance of a black man and his wife, he was soon comfortably situated, and in August, 1767, opened a Latin School designed to prepare young men for entrance into college—apparently while his servants hoed the corn, milked the cows and did all the other chores connected with the operation of an 18th century residence.

To judge from the cold statistics Enoch Green was by no means a fiery evangelist insofar as being spectacular in building up the membership of the church. The register of members indicates only thirteen persons were added to the rolls during the nine years of his ministry. The register of baptisms, marriages and burials for the same period shows an infinitely greater number of names, indicating to a great degree, his popularity as a person, with those residing within the bounds of his parish, but who were unwilling to make the commitment necessary to become a communicant member of the Presbyterian Society.

Philip Vickers Fithian, one of his first students and who later became his brother-in-law, in his diary described Enoch as “vastly sensible, very intelligible, dry, witty, satirical, yet good and exceedingly agreeable.”  On still another occasion he is described as habitually wearing a “large” wig.

To many the period of Enoch Green’s ministry might be particularly notable for the fact that in 1771 the present stone church was built. As has been stated in the section of this book describing the building, it is the conviction of the writer that it was Enoch Green who ingeniously showed the congregation how they might have a meeting house of which they could boast with the least expenditure of cash. It is easy to visualize the joy and satisfaction of the people on the day they transferred from the Log Church to their new and imposing stone meeting house.


If only because of his close ties with Philip Vickers Fithian and with the Rev’d Andrew Hunter of Greenwich, Enoch was early involved in the rising local antipathy toward the policies of the English Crown. John Rice in his book, The Presbyterian Church , (1929), has this to say:

“The outstanding influence of the Presbyterian Church during the American Revolution is shown by the fact that English officials and their Tory friends placed the whole blame for the rebellion on the Presbyterians. There was only one Presbyterian minister who supported the British. The Tory rector of the Trinity Episcopal Church in New York City, wrote in 1776: ‘I do not know one Presbyterian minister, nor have I been able after strict inquiry to hear of any who did not, by preaching and every effort in their power, promote all the measures of the Continental Congress, however extravagent.’  Horace Walpole said in the British House of Commons, ‘There is no good crying about the matter, America has run off with a Presbyterian parson and that is the end of it.’”

Enoch Green, the Chaplain

In the journal of Ebenezer Elmer of Bridgeton, is the following entry, “On July 20, 1775, a day appointed as a Continental Fast, a number of officers and men went up to Deerfield to hear the Chaplain. Mr. Green preached on the occasion from Matthew xxii:12, ‘Friend,  how camest thou hither not having a wedding garment?’”

On that occasion, almost a year before the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the Rev’d Enoch Green spoke from the high pulpit of the Deerfield Presbyterian Church. The men and officers of the Deerfield Militia who occupied the pews beneath him were for the most part not members of his congregation, but nevertheless listened intently to what he had to say.

According to R. Craig Koedel, historian, on March 22, 1776, Chaplain Green again spoke to a group of men. This time members of New Jersey’s Third Battalion under the command of
Joseph Bloomfield, a former student of Green’s classical school in the Deerfield manse.  Mr. Koedel states that for Green, as well as for other Presbyterians, the struggle for liberty and independence was considered to be a holy war.

The Princeton University owns the original manuscript of this sermon in the handwriting of Enoch Green. In this sermon Green rehearses the events leading up to the inevitability of war and is an exhortation concerning the conduct of any individual while serving as a soldier. The sermon clearly illustrates the attitude of the Presbyterian clergy with regard to the impending rebellion against English rule.

A copy of this address, presently in the possession of the Cumberland County Historical Society, duplicates the original in that Mr. Green’s personal shorthand characters  have been retained. The text of Mr. Green’s talk, which is appended to this history of the church, has been edited to supply words missing from the tattered manuscript where in some instances sentence endings are either torn away or are not legible. Also, two complete pages are missing. However, it is believed the sense of the sermon has been preserved for the reader. The content of Enoch Green’s talk should be of particular interest to those seeking to gain further insight concerning the events in this area before the actual entry into the war with Great Britain.

In keeping with the Presbyterian policy of complete separation of spiritual and secular matters, there is no mention in the Sessional records of the Revolution, the position of our church with regard to the rebellion, nor of the participation of its members in the war.

It therefore follows that no comment was made of Mr. Green’s departure for camp in his capacity of chaplain. Because of an earlier illness he was prevented from accompanying the Third Battalion on their long march to Lake Champlain. Later, while serving with Washington’s troops at Fort Washington near New York City, he again became ill and although he managed to return to his family in Deerfield, he died December 2, 1776. As a mark of the esteem in which he was held, the Rev’d Enoch Green, dead at the age of 42, was buried beneath the brick floor of the meeting house he had encouraged his parishioners to build only five years earlier.

Benjamin Davis, Jun’r., writing of Enoch Green in 1790, has this to say: “From his exemplary walk and his superior abilities, he proved a profitable as well as an able minister of the New Testament—we have every assurance that he will not be without a considerable number of jewels in his crown of rejoicing in the great day of the Lord.”

[1] This is Old Pine St Presbyterian Church, also known as Third Scots & Mariners -Editor

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